لاہور()وزیراعلیٰ پنجاب کے معاون خصوصی اور تحریک انصاف کے رہنما سردار تنویر الیاس خان نے کہا ہے کہ آزاد کشمیر کے انتخابات میں کامیابی کیلئے تحریک انصاف کو جنگی بنیادوں پر آرگنائز کرنے کیضرورت ہے۔ہم پہلے ہی کہہ رہے تھے کہ پارٹی چیئرمین وزیراعظم پاکستان عمران خان چاہتے ہیں کہ دوسری پارٹیوں سے صاف وشفاف لوگوں کی شمولیت یقینی بنائیں لیکن بدقستمی سے بعض لوگوں کو یہ بات سمجھ نہیں آرہی تھی اور پارٹی کو ون مین شوکے طور پر چلانا چاہتے تھے۔وزیر اعظم عمران خان نے ثابت کیا ہے کہ وہ کشمیریوں کے سفیر ہیں۔بین الاقوامی فورمز ہوں یا کوئی بھی خاص موقع وہ کشمیریوں کے ساتھ کھڑے ہوتے ہیں۔ یوم یکجہتی کشمیرکے موقع پر بھی آزاد کشمیر کے دورے کا اعلان کرکےانہوں نے کشمیریوں سے محبت کا اظہار ہے۔
ان خیالات کا اظہار انہوں نے لاہور میں میڈیا کے نمائندوں سے گفتگو کرتے ہوئےکیا۔وزیراعلیٰ پنجاب کے معاون خصوصی اور تحریک انصاف کے رہنما کا مزید کہنا تھا کہ وزیر اعظم عمران خان نے ہمیں ہدایت کی تھی کہ دوسری جماعتوں سے صاف و شفاف۔باکردار اور دیانتدار لوگوں کو شامل کریں۔انکی ہدایت کے مطابق ہم نے موقف اختیارکیا تھا کہ گذشتہ سات سالوں کے دوران پی ٹی آئی آزادکشمیر کو ون مین شو بنائے رکھا گیا جس کا نتیجہ یہ ہے کہ وزیراعظم نےایک مرتبہ پھر واضع ہدایت کی کہ دوسری جماعتوں سے لوگوں کو شامل کیا جائے۔بعض لوگ ہماری اس رائے کی مخالفت کرتے ہوئے میری کردار کشی تک چلے گئے۔
پی ٹی آئی عمران خان کا نام ہے اور وہی ہمارے قائد ہیں۔مجھ سمیت باقی سارے انکے کارکن ہیں۔عمران خان کے وژن کے تحت آزادکشمیر کو فلاحی ریاست بناناچاہتے ہیں۔کل بھی وزیراعظم نے یہی کہا کہ آزادکشمیر کو خوشحال ریاست بناکر کنٹرول لائن کے پار مثبت پیغام دیا جا سکتا ہے۔
انہوں نے کہا کہ آزادکشمیر کے آمدہ الیکشن میں چند ماہ باقی رہ گئے ہیں۔اس دوران کامیابی حاصل کرنے کیلئے ہنگامی اور جنگی بنیادوں پر کام کرنے کی ضرورت ہے۔آزادکشمیر کے عوام عمران خان کے وژن کو پسند کرتے ہیں۔مجھے ایمان کی حد تک یقین ہے کہ عمران خان کی قیادت میں تحریک انصاف دو تہائی اکثریت سے کامیابی حاصل کریگی۔
ایک سوال کے جواب میں سردار تنویر الیاس نے کہا کہ آزادکشمیر میں تعمیر و ترقی کرکے اسے فلاحی ماڈل سٹیٹ بنایا جاسکتا ہے۔بد قسمتی ہے کہ زلزلے کو 15 سال گذرنے کے باوجود 600 سے زائد تعلیمی اداروں کے ٹینڈر ہی نہیں ہوئے اور بچے کھلے آسمان تلے بیٹھ کر پڑھنے پر مجبور ہے۔اسی طرح ہسپتال بھی لوگوں کو راولپنڈی اور اسلام آباد ریفر کرنے کا ایک ذریعہ بنے ہوئے ہیں۔کسی ایک ادارے کو بھی مثال کے طور پرپیش نہیں کیا جاسکتا۔ آزاد کشمیر کی حکمران جماعت گلگت بلتستان انتخابات کی طرح شکست سے دوچار ہو گی اور لوگ ووٹ کے ذریعے اس کااحتساب کرتے ہوئے پی۔ٹی۔آئی کو کامیاب بنائیں گے۔
ایک اور سوال کے جواب میں سردار تنویر الیاس خان نے کہا کہ پاکستان میں پی ڈی ایم کے غبارے سے ہوا نکل چکی ہے۔اناء اور کرپشن بچانے کیلئے ہاتھ پاؤں مارنے والی پی ڈی ایم عمران خان کو کیا ہٹائے گی۔عمران خان نہ صرف اپنی مدت پوری کرینگے بلکہ آنے والے پانچ سال بھی وہی وزیراعظم ہونگے۔
سردارتنویرالیاس خان نے کہا کہ عمران خان پاکستان کے پہلے حکمران ہیں جنہوں نے مسئلہ کشمیر ہر عالمی فورم پر بہت خوبصورتی اور پوری دلیری سے اٹھایا جس کی وجہ سے مودی کا انتہاء پسند چہرہ بے نقاب ہوا۔5 فروری کو یوم یکجہتی کشمیرنہ صرف آزادکشمیر بلکہ ملک بھر میں منایا جائے گا۔وزیراعظم عمران خان جو ہر ایسے موقع پر کشمیریوں کے ساتھ دلیری سے کھڑے ہوتے ہیں وہ اب کی بار بھی نہ صرف ایل او سی کا دورہ کریں گے بلکہ جلسہ عام سے خطاب بھی کریں گے۔کراچی سے خیبر۔بلوچستان سے اسلام آباد اور گلگت بلتستان سے آزادکشمیر تک پوری قوم مقبوضہ کشمیر کے عوام کے ساتھ یکجہتی کرے گی۔
LAHORE: Special Assistant to Chief Minister Punjab and PTI leader Sardar Tanveer Ilyas Khan has said that in order to win the elections in Azad Kashmir, it is necessary to organize the PTI on a war footing. Imran Khan wants to ensure the participation of clean and transparent people from other parties but unfortunately some people did not understand this and wanted to run the party as a one man show. Prime Minister Imran Khan has proved that he is a Kashmiris. They stand with Kashmiris in international forums or any special occasion. He also expressed his love for Kashmiris by announcing his visit to Azad Kashmir on the occasion of Kashmir Solidarity Day.
He expressed these views while talking to media persons in Lahore. The Special Assistant to the Chief Minister Punjab and PTI leader further said that Prime Minister Imran Khan had instructed us to be clear and transparent from other parties. Involve honest people. As per his directive, we had taken a stand that during the last seven years, PTI Azad Kashmir has been made a one-man show, with the result that the Prime Minister once again made it clear that people from other parties Some people opposed our opinion and even went so far as to degrade me.
PTI is the name of Imran Khan and he is our leader. All others including me are his workers. Under Imran Khan’s vision, we want to make Azad Kashmir a welfare state. Yesterday, the Prime Minister said that by making Azad Kashmir a prosperous state, A positive message can be sent across.
He said that there are few months left in the upcoming elections of Azad Kashmir. In order to win in the meantime, it is necessary to work on the basis of emergency and war. The people of Azad Kashmir like the vision of Imran Khan. It is certain that the PTI under Imran Khan will win by a two-thirds majority.
Replying to a question, Sardar Tanveer Ilyas said that by building and developing Azad Kashmir, it can be made a welfare model state. Unfortunately, 15 years after the earthquake, more than 600 educational institutions have not been tendered and children are open. Hospitals have become a means of referring people to Rawalpindi and Islamabad. No single institution can be cited as an example. The ruling party of Azad Kashmir will be defeated like the Gilgit-Baltistan elections and the people will make the PTI successful by holding it accountable through voting.
In reply to another question, Sardar Tanveer Ilyas Khan said that the bubble of PDM has burst in Pakistan. What will the PDM remove Imran Khan who is fighting to save Anna and corruption. He will complete his term and will be the next Prime Minister for the next five years.
Sardar Tanvir Alias Khan said that Imran Khan was the first ruler of Pakistan who raised the issue of Kashmir in every international forum with great beauty and courage which exposed the extremist face of Modi. February 5 Kashmir Solidarity Day Prime Minister Imran Khan, who bravely stands with Kashmiris on every such occasion, will not only visit the LOC this time but will also address a public meeting. From Karachi to Khyber-Balochistan From Islamabad and Gilgit-Baltistan to Azad Kashmir, the entire nation will show solidarity with the people of Occupied Kashmir.
The wellbeing, monetary, and social equity emergencies of 2020 are reshaping the eventual fate of both local area and social administrations. The Covid pandemic has contacted each side of the world. For the worldwide wellbeing local area, it has reclassified how care is conveyed to high-chance networks, how we characterize danger, and how we address the force designs and main drivers that make danger, weakness, and imbalance. Since the pandemic arrived at the United States, non-white individuals have encountered lopsidedly higher paces of hospitalizations and passing’s. As indicated by information from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Black Americans have a 2.6 occasions higher pace of cases, 4.7 occasions higher pace of hospitalization, and 2.1 occasions higher pace of passings from COVID-19 than white Americans. Hispanic Americans have a 2.8 occasions more prominent pace of diseases, 4.6 occasions more noteworthy pace of hospitalizations, and 1.1 occasions more prominent pace of passings than white Americans. The Medtronic Foundation expects to improve the wellbeing of underserved populaces. However, genuine change happens not due to funders. Genuine, supported change is the aftereffect of the not-for-profit associations that change financing to connect networks and clinical consideration conveyance in manners that address patients as individuals.
To exploit that aggregate information and profound skill, the Medtronic Foundation got together with its accomplices who are tending to wellbeing differences from around the globe to make a Learning Community, where individuals share bits of knowledge and best practices, trade assets, and talk about exercises learned. Aggregate taking in occurs through normal experiences from those on the ground and by effectively attempting to separate the funder-beneficiary worldview, putting a premium on organizations.
In discussion with individuals from our Learning Community, here is a brief look at what the Medtronic Foundation found about how charities are acclimating to the emergencies of 2020, through the perspective of wellbeing value:
Coronavirus and social removing measures have changed how care is conveyed and how charities work. When you ponder 2020, what are a portion of the essential changes you actualized progressively to be receptive to the truth of what your networks confronted?
Ann Marjorie Mbule | mothers2mothers
Our program is centered around forestalling mother-to-kid transmission of HIV, by giving schooling and backing to pregnant ladies and new moms living with the infection. During the COVID-19 pandemic, we’ve discovered that opportune, exact medical care data has been more hard to access in networks we serve across sub-Saharan Africa, leaving numerous questionable about COVID-19’s side effects, how it spreads, and how best to ensure themselves. This is a distinct token of the beginning of the HIV pandemic that crushed numerous African people group. We have additionally seen interruptions to HIV, maternal wellbeing, and more extensive wellbeing administrations—which could have critical outcomes.
Against this setting, mothers2mothers (m2m) built up our Virtual Mentor Mother Platform (VMMP), an intelligent apparatus run on the informing stage WhatsApp that empowers clients to get to essential wellbeing data and administration references on COVID-19 and other wellbeing themes from a confided in source. While we had wanted to build up a comparable device in the coming years, the Covid prodded us to act quicker. VMMP contains COVID-19 instruction and counteraction messages, notwithstanding data on HIV avoidance and treatment, maternal wellbeing, youth advancement, and noncommunicable illnesses—all converted into 30 dialects.
Greg Mann | Grameen PrimaCare
Our program, Grameen Promotoras, champions wellbeing equity by giving fundamental wellbeing, social, and passionate help to low-pay ladies business people that Grameen America upholds, the greater part of whom are Latinx. Our individuals likewise have been lopsidedly affected by COVID-19, particularly in the Bronx, New York, served by Grameen Promotoras’ people group wellbeing laborers. We turned to advanced consideration effortlessly. Every day, these laborers, or promotoras, proactively call their program individuals to keep an eye on their wellbeing and prosperity, sharing assets and reference data. The promotoras are additionally promptly accessible by telephone or text to give convenient guidance to their individuals when they are out of luck. Most outstandingly, through their virtual effort, the promotoras had the option to find out the requirement for glucometers for individuals living with diabetes and therefore gave these gadgets to those out of luck.
Karissa Moreno | Center for Well-Being
Our association is a charitable wellbeing place in Sonoma County, California. We serve a prevalently low-pay and Latinx populace, large numbers of whom battled to get to essential assets, for example, food, lodging, and childcare. Sonoma County has been hard hit by late floods, flames, and now a worldwide pandemic. When the asylum set up request was declared, we immediately rotated from meeting with patients face to face to telehealth administrations. Inside 24 hours we were giving virtual clinical nourishment treatment visits for occupants battling with the impacts of diabetes, hypertension, corpulence, and other ongoing sicknesses. This has been basic help for a populace that experiences excessively wellbeing abberations and absence of admittance to assets, and who are at more serious danger of creating entanglements on the off chance that they are contaminated with COVID-19.
Anne Stake | Medtronic Labs
In 2019, Medtronic Labs, a public advantage enterprise, dispatched Prerna in Bangalore, India—a complete medical care conveyance model for individuals living with, or in danger for, Type II diabetes, hypertension, and other comorbid infections. The model incorporates social and clinical intercessions in a gathering based setting, near and dear. Our proof and experience to date has indicated that utilization of the gathering model in patients who are now associated with one another has expanded viability. With the rise of the Covid, we immediately moved our model to far off administrations, with contactless prescription conveyance and noncommunicable illness testing, telehealth, and e-gathering. Through wellbeing mentor directed virtual care groups, patients share stories with one another, while accepting proceeded with direction on the administration of their condition.
In our Learning Community, we’ve frequently talked about the job of local area wellbeing laborers (CHWs) in underserved patients, particularly those with constant conditions who are at most noteworthy danger for COVID-19, to have routine and redone admittance to mind. How do CHWs guarantee wellbeing abberations aren’t augmenting as we rotate the manner in which wellbeing administrations are conveyed?
Charlie Mandile | HealthFinders
HealthFinders serves an enormous populace of worker and outcast patients with constant infections, including diabetes and cardiovascular sickness, in country Rice County, Minnesota. In our province, almost 66% of individuals who have contracted COVID-19 distinguish as Hispanic or Black. The Covid hit our local area especially hard due to their prior persistent conditions, and, for a period, we saw the quickest developing episode in the United States. We sent our one of a kind local area driven model to proactively contact weak patients. Our CHWs have been crucial in this reaction. Notwithstanding virtual visits, they utilized our consideration coordination innovation to make watchlists that would permit them to proactively screen both weak patients with COVID-19 and individuals with suspected cases. Their work has included proactive calls and registration to guarantee their patients know precisely how to look for help in the event that they have COVID-19 indications.
Our continuous confiding seeing someone, solid interchanges, and relationship building have been basic to our prosperity during the pandemic. Notwithstanding data, consolation, and direction, our clinical groups and CHWs interface our patients to nearby assets, for example, lodging help. We’ve likewise built up a produce conveyance program to fill a basic hole in admittance to nutritious food. HealthFinders likewise plans patients for calls they will get from state or province contract-following specialists, urging them to pick up the telephone and consoling them that these calls are essentially to look for data about how the infection is spreading, not to rebuff individuals. By offering these assets and backing, patients are better ready to zero in on their wellbeing.
Carmen M. Vélez Vega, PhD, MSW | Puerto Rico Public Health Trust
Lately, the networks we serve in Puerto Rico have confronted a few crises, including a significant typhoon and seismic tremors. Through these encounters, we’ve learned numerous significant exercises that we’ve applied to the Covid pandemic, particularly around the complete importance of social determinants of wellbeing. These components especially sway individuals in networks with restricted financial assets and absence of admittance to wellbeing administrations, training, and transportation.
A significant number of our customers likewise experience prejudice, sexism, homophobia, and different types of segregation. For these individuals, the impacts of crises like the pandemic are altogether more extreme—compounding obstructions that were there before the crisis—and the help of Community Health Promotoras is lifesaving. Promotoras bring the guarantee of somebody who comprehends the language, the way of life, and the meaning of wellbeing. They are local area individuals and help make linkages with assets to take out the deterrents to wellbeing that a customer’s social conditions may force. To continue offering types of assistance during crises, we should guarantee network among promotoras and their patients, just as with the more extensive social and wellbeing framework.
Muhammad Musa, MBBS, MPH | BRAC
BRAC gives wellbeing administrations to individuals living in destitution in 11 nations across Asia and Africa. To a great extent, these patients are living with constant sicknesses like coronary illness and diabetes, which implies they are likewise at higher danger of inconveniences on the off chance that they contract COVID-19. We’ve discovered local area based effort is crucial for sharing data about COVID-19 and dissipating hazardous fantasies. Depending on our organization of 50,000 local area wellbeing laborers (CHWs) and an extra 50,000 cutting edge staff and volunteers, we have shared information for a monstrous scope—in zones where broadcast communications are not accessible—through house to house exceed that advances appropriate insurance conventions, leafleting, and the utilization of amplifiers on motorbikes. This exertion has just contacted in excess of 100 million individuals. We’ve likewise conveyed cleanliness items to more than 1.7 million individuals and individual defensive gear to 1.1 million individuals.
An exercise we gained from the Ebola emergency in West Africa is the significance of keeping up fundamental essential wellbeing administrations during a pandemic, which are again compromised in the midst of COVID-19. We have traded that exercise, and our worldwide organization of 50,000 CHWs keeps on arriving at last-mile networks with basic consideration for squeezing wellbeing concerns like pneumonia, intestinal sickness, cholera, and tuberculosis. BRAC likewise keeps on running wellbeing offices, including maternity units giving essential medical care to pregnant and lactating ladies. We have additionally altered our diagnos
Planning stage is very much vital. It looks that a teacher has to perform multiple roles at this stage. They are learners. They have to constantly take their classes. They have to attend their professional development sessions to learn the latest best practices. They should know different strategies for an effective teaching. They have to know the importance of new techniques and their weightage in the learning atmosphere. Good teachers always try to find some new ways and try to improve themselves day by day. They want to train their students. They every time analyze tests and results of their students. They even analyse other data to help and determine the course of their instruction and make changes in their classrooms teaching according the need of the class and the students. They discuss about the struggling students and ask other teachers who are teaching the same class and students. Good teachers plan their lessons to teach their students and provide them interesting activities through standards.
2.12.2 Instructional Level
The role of a teacher is a facilitator for their students in the classroom. They provide the students’ information and they employee different tools as they need to master in that subject. The students gain a lot from their method and teaching. Teachers have to act like tutors when they have to work with groups of students instead of whole class at a time or even individual students within the classroom or after the class when they have time and need for a student. Teachers have to act the role of evaluators, constantly assessing students’ abilities, asking questions, advising and providing suggestions for their improvement and benefit and even having different tasks and grades for them.
2.12.3 Professional Duties
Teachers have to take on other roles the whole school day and over the school year. They are good guider at different school functions. They are the best coaches at sports days. They are monitors at lunch time in recess. They serve as fund raisers for different trips. Their role at different level changes accordingly. They are interior designers too at the time class decoration competitions. They make sure their classrooms are set up to support learning activities. The teachers are artists when they update their bulletin boards of their classrooms.
The teachers are role models for their students. The teachers are leaders and students. Their main aim of a teacher is to develop and prepare their students for their future as honest and successful persons for their society. At school level with the help of the teachers these goals can easily be achieved. Schools need to perform their functions effectively. It is only possible by introducing new educational reforms in schools for all levels and classes. These Educational reforms help professional development of the teachers and enhance students’ learning outcomes and their proficiency of learning in their respective subjects.
In the context of Pakistan, there are many initiatives taken by different organizations and government to improve the quality of education and performance of schools, teachers and the students. As a result many interesting and innovative ideas die soon without breeding due to the lack of motivational tools. They were functioning in a traditional way, students were less involved in teaching/learning and teachers had to spend more time in teaching than students take time in their learning. Change had occurred in teaching/ learning in schools as a result of participating in Whole School Improvement Program. Researcher’s own experience and research had shown that Whole School Improvement Program is an innovative program which considers and deals with all aspects of School Improvement particularly teaching/learning atmosphere.
2.13 USE OF ACTIVITY-BASED LEARNING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
According to another study at the University of South Carolina, where again activity-based learning was concerned with the Biology courses rather than any other subject. But the difference was there in the teaching of two groups. Here one group was taught by a lecture method. And other group was taught by using new, activity-based, method of teaching. Here the student’s learning was also compared. Pre- tests post-tests were conducted, these were marked and then analysed by the researcher. These tests were included content knowledge as well as open-ended written questions from the students. Students were asked to address a misconception in the open-ended questions. They had at the beginning of the course that was reconciled by the end. The pre test and posttest were designed by the university professors at the same time. It was given over five semesters of the same course to check the result and learning of the students.
The Result of the above-mentioned study showed the concrete ideas were better understood by the students with traditional lecture method classes. The concrete ideas were of Physiology and Anatomy subjects. The abstract ideas and concepts with activity-based teaching and techniques like evolution and biodiversity (Timmerman et al., 2010). Another field that was addressed in the study of Biology learning is Genetics. This field is very important field of Biology courses. A Genetics Concept Inventory (GCI), modeled after the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), is being developed in an effort to assess misconceptions most commonly found here. The GCI has initially 49 students only at California Polytechnic State University and consisted of 38 questions in total. 36 questions were a mixture of multiple choice questions, fill in the blanks, matching and even true/ false out of 38. The last 2 were short questions and answer. These questions were set by keeping in the view to cover a variety of topics, including components of DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid) its structure and the relation of DNA and protein, cell reproduction, and how genes are passed from one generation to another generation. These directed questions were even then posted publicly in a paper with a title “Genetics Concept Inventory” (Elrod, 2007). In this course of Biology, there is a need of to use activity-based method of teaching. As the results were desired and expected in some areas of the topics as discussed above.
The comparison of the teaching and learning on the relationship between activity-based activities and lecture-method and the student achievement had been done in the areas of Physics and Chemistry also. Since a large component of Biology is concerned with the memorization of knowledge and concepts and is not as skill-based as other science disciplines. There are some specific concepts in Biology, the students could have more benefit of having activity-based learning and teaching as compared to traditional learning by lecture method. Researches had been conducted on high school students as compared to the college level students. Most studies had been taught using inquiry throughout the course. Because there is no inquiry curriculum for Biology was yet introduced, it would have been better to use the method all the year and in every lecture. That is why old method of teaching / learning was adopted.
2.14 THE OBJECTIVES OF ACTIVITY-BASED METHOD
If a teacher set objectives before his her teaching, the teacher can achieve the goals by using Activity-based teaching. This method is very helpful in teaching any subject. Teachers by their own experience can observe and make pairs or group of the class in his/her classroom. The teacher can use jigsaw technique in their classes.
Students also participate in Whole School Improvement Program (WSIP). They acknowledged the improvement in teaching/learning processes as a result of participating in it. They said, “After Whole School Improvement Program our teachers are providing us opportunities to work in groups, interact with each other, and clarify ideas from each other and from teachers”. The activity-based teaching enhanced students’ learning and teachers felt satisfaction. Nizamuddin said, “I am using the strategy of activity based teaching. I am feeling physical and spiritual satisfaction in this teaching because students are learning more while working in different activities”. Participating in Whole School Improvement Program, there are two approaches of teachers to teach in their classes. These are teacher-centered approach and student-centered approach. They were using activity-based teaching approaches where students are actively participated and engaged in doing different activities and learning by doing on their own. This is a student-centered approach of teaching.
In the Activity-based learning /teaching, classroom observations and teachers commented and confirmed that students like Salima Begum and Babar Khan are learning better than their learning before. They take the responsibility for their own learning / teaching and support their colleagues in group work and other activities which lead students to social development. Activity- based teaching leads towards students’ involvement and interest because while manipulating activities in the classroom students are involved constructively with the teaching/learning process. It is a dire need for the teachers to plan their lessons daily and develop different resources for their teaching.
2.15 LESSON PLANNING AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS
The importance of lesson planning is undeniable. An effective teaching / learning the Lesson Planning is very critical to enhance students’ learning in their classrooms. Therefore, teachers must develop plans for their lesson for effectiveness teaching and learning. As Vaidya (1971) said, “through successful planning of lesson, we can help to train our pupils in … questioning, defining problems ….and use their previous experience to think about it” (p.163). In WSIP (Whole School Improvement Program) lesson planning has been given great importance and attention to move from lecture-based teaching methodology to activity-based teaching methodology to improve the quality of their teaching/ learning of their students. A teacher, participant of WISP, mentioned that he learnt how to develop a lesson plan in activity-based program. But he could not know about the objectives and he was not giving importance to involve students in activities and divide time considering the importance and length of activities must be kept in mind. WSIP helped him to realize the importance of learning / teaching time in the classroom.
The purpose of valuing lesson plan was to devise innovative and attractive activities for the students in the lesson planning. As Singh (2004) described, “lesson planning prevent wastage of time and energy of both the teachers and the taught” (p.117). Futher Vaidya (1971) explained, “We plan lessons because we can present material in a logical, systematic and effective way, keeping in mind, at the same time, the mental development of those for whom we plan to teach” (p.164).
The definition to improvement as a change not only in a process from one mode to another, but it also connotes a change towards a higher quality of education. In the same way they caution that ‘quality is a question of value judgment’ and that “from the history of education we can learn that what has been labeled School Improvement is often the articulation of specific social and political interest” (p.139). The point that is to be noted here is that the initiatives must have the imbedded mechanism of either utilizing these social and political aspects of learning to ensure the problems are solved and schools move on a right directions for its outcome. Any school improvement program attempt has main feature to take into an account if it wants to be successful.
سردار تنویر الیاس کے ساتھ سیاسی شخصیات کی ملاقاتیں جاری، بانی صدر پی ٹی آئی ڈاکٹر لطف الرحمان نے بھی ناراض کارکنوں سمیت کندھے سے کندھا ملا دیا۔
اسلام آباد(اڑان نیوز ) پاکستان تحریک انصاف کے سینئر رہنماء و وزیر اعلیٰ پنجاب کے معاون خصوصی سردار تنویر الیاس خان سے آزاد کشمیر کی مختلف سیاسی شخصیات کی ملاقاتوں کا سلسلہ جاری ہے، پی ٹی آئی آزادکشمیر کے بانی صدر ڈاکٹر لطف الرحمان نے بھی سردار تنویر الیاس خان سے ملاقات کرتے ہوئے اپنے ساتھیوں سمیت ان پر اپنے اعتماد کا اظہار کرتے ہوئے ملکر پارٹی مضبوط کرنے کا فیصلہ کیا ہے۔ سردار تنویر الیاس خان نے ڈاکٹر لطف الرحمان کی پارٹی کیلئے خدمات کو سراہتے ہوئے کہا کہ اب وہ وقت آ گیا ہے کہ پارٹی کے بنیادی و نظریاتی کارکنان اپنی جدوجہد مزید تیز کریں اور پارٹی کو الیکشن کیلئے نمبر ون پارٹی بنائیں۔ ڈاکٹر لطف الرحمان نے کہا کہ چیئرمین عمران خان نے آپ پر اعتماد کرتے ہوئے آزادکشمیر میں سیاسی کردار کیلئے منتخب کیا ہے ہم آپ کو خوش آمدید کہتے ہیں۔ سردار تنویر الیاس خان نے کہا کہ وزیر اعظم عمران خان نے پاکستان میں کرپٹ مافیا پر ہاتھ ڈالا ہے تو ان سب کی چیخیں نکل گئی ہیں، پاکستان میں ترقی اور تبدیلی کا سفر کامیابی سے جاری ہے۔ موجودہ پی ٹی آئی حکومت نے غریبوں کا احساس کرتے ہوئے سب کو بلا تخصیص ہیلتھ کارڈ جاری کرنے شروع کیے ہیں، ایسے اقدامات ہی فلاحی معاشروں کو پروان چڑھاتے ہیں۔ سردار تنویر الیاس خان نے کہا کہ آزادکشمیر میں عمران خان کی بنیادی و نظریاتی کارکنان اور رہنماء نے مشکل سیاسی حالات کا سامنا جرات کے ساتھ کیا ، ہم تمام پارٹی کارکنان کو عزت دیں گے اور ساتھ لیکر چلیں گے۔ انہوں نے کہا کہ موجودہ وقت کا تقاضا ہے کہ پارٹی کو جنگی بنیادوں پر مضبوط کیا جائے۔ انہوں نے کہا کہ پی ٹی آئی سمیت جو بھی لوگ آزادکشمیر کے لوگوں کی اور ریاست کی بہتری کیلئے کام کرنا چاہتے ہیں وہ پی ٹی آئی کی چھتری تلے آ جائیں، ہم سب ملکر آزادکشمیر کو بدلیں گے۔ انہوں نے مزید کہا کہ پارٹی رہنماؤں اور کارکنان کی اس وقت صرف ایک ہی تریح ہونی چاہیے کہ پارٹی میں صاف شفاف لوگ زیادہ سے زیادہ شامل ہو سکیں ۔
The use of Activity-based methods and activities in science subjects, Physics, Chemistry and Biology and Social Science, is more advanced. In Physics courses, in Pakistan, had been able to use the force concept inventory since 1992 as an effective assessment tool that measures changes in conceptual understanding within an active learning environment (Savinainen, Scott, 2002).
There was a research that was conducted in 1985 in this field showed that traditional styles of teaching are doing little to improve the conceptual learning in Physics and even in other science subjects. (Halloun, Hestenes, 1985).
In 1998, there were some students who got admission in Physics courses in high schools and colleges to compare activity-based teaching and learning methods and traditional methods in order to check the difference and effects on student understanding. Activity-based method can also be called as Interactive Engagement (IEM) Method can be defined as “designed at least in part to promote conceptual understanding through interactive engagement of students in heads-on (always) and hands-on (usually) activities which yield immediate feedback through discussion with peers and/or instructors.” And “make little or no use of Interactive Engagement methods, relying primarily on passive-student lectures and is very dull and boring as compared to new method of teaching learning in the environment. ” (Hake, 1998).
It was noticed that the results that were obtained by using the new methods were greater as compared to the traditional methods. According to the researcher analysis “the conceptual test results strongly suggest that the use of IE strategies can increase mechanics-course 9 effectiveness well beyond that obtained with traditional methods” (Hake, 1998). Activity-based teaching and learning activities are shown a noticeable difference in the courses student learning in Physics and other language courses.
2.10 The advantages & disadvantages of Activity based learning
As the name suggest Activity based learning is gaining knowledge by doing activities. In this methodology students rather than attending the classes given by teachers, they use their creative dynamism to guide them through the activity based material. There is strong lobby supporting either learning channel. People who support traditional ways of learning strongly feels that it worked for them, for their parents, similarly it will work well for their child as well. Another section of society feels otherwise and strongly advocates for activity based learning. Let’s see what are the general advantages and disadvantages we have come across:
- Each child has its own speed to grasp things, activity based learning allows kid to learn fundamentals at their own speed.
- Horizon of learning is pretty wise, it facilitates learning in groups, and mutual learning. Also it has a place for self-learning.
- It allows teacher’s to devote time to individual student needs.
- Since its activity based and kid is involved in the process – their participation allows them to pick fundamentals fast.
- There is no concept of unit test etc, Evaluation is inbuilt in the system which makes it quite child friendly.
- On completing the activity, child has a feeling of sense of accomplishment which boosts child’s confidence.
- Games are needless to say create more buzz among children.
- Creative and communicative skills are bound to groom in this way of learning.
- There is feeling of interaction between teacher and the child, it helps in reducing the barrier between the two.
Now let’s look at some disadvantages which is not allowing activity based learning mushroom it to the huge extent.
- It’s important to learn facts right. If fundamentals and facts are not known, it doesn’t help in arguments and debates.
- Same goes for learning any foreign language.
There are not many disadvantages however shortcomings are big enough which makes traditional learning and activity based learning system as complementary mechanism, rather than substituting them completely. If judiciously both the techniques are blended and child is taught it can do wonders.
In a blog relating Teaching Strategy posted on Friday, June 08, 2012 at www.Google.com
Activity method is a technique adopted by a teacher to emphasize his or her method of teaching through activity in which the students participate rigorously and bring about efficient learning experiences. It is a child-centered approach. It is a method in which the child is actively involved in participating mentally and physically. Learning by doing is the main focus in this method. Learning by doing is imperative in successful learning since it is well proved that more the senses are stimulated, more a person learns and longer the teacher retains.
Pine G (1989) mentions that in an activity based teaching, learners willingly with enthusiasm internalize and implement concepts relevant to their needs. So our understanding on the activity method by now should mean any learning that is carried out with a purpose in a social environment, involving physical and mental action, stimulating for creative action or expression.
2.11 The need to use activity based learning method
The information processing theory in psychology views learners as active investigators of their environment. This theory is grounded in the premise that people innately strive to make sense of the world around them.
In the process of learning, they experience, memorize and understand. Students need to be provided with data and materials necessary to focus their thinking and interaction in the lesson for the process of analyzing the information. Teachers need to be actively involved in directing and guiding the students’ analysis of the information.
It requires active problem solving by students in finding patterns in the information through their own investigation and analysis. With continued practice in these processes, students learn not the content of the lesson but also develop many other skills.
· It enhances creative aspect of experience.
· It gives reality for learning.
· Uses all available resources.
· Provides varied experiences to the students to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge, experience, skills and values.
· Builds the student’s self-confidence and develops understanding through work in his/her group.
· Gets experiences, develop interest, enriches vocabulary and provides stimulus for reading.
· Develops happy relationship between students and students, teachers and students.
· An activity is said to be the language of the child. A child who lacks in verbal expression can make up through use of ideas in the activity.
· Subjects of all kind can be taught through activity.
· Social relation provides opportunity to mix with others.
2.11.1 Kinds of activities:
The activities used in this strategy can be generalized under three main categories:
· Exploratory – gathering knowledge, concept and skill.
· Constructive – getting experience through creative works.
· Expressional – presentations.
2.11.2 Steps required for Effective Organization of Activities.
b. Involving children in the learning process.
c. Each child is made an active learner.
d. For each activity ensure you follow the principles of:-
- How? Work directions step by step, including:
- With whom? Where? How long?
- What after?
e. Ensure you give clear instructions before each activity. It must focus on the above a, b, c, d.
2.12 Role of a Teacher in an Activity Based Method
- A planner, an organizer and evaluator.
- Decision maker.
- Knowledge imparter
The work of a good teacher is at different levels as under:
- Planning level
- Instructional level
- Professional level
سردار تنویر الیاس کے ساتھ سیاسی شخصیات کی ملاقاتیں جاری، بانی صدر پی ٹی آئی ڈاکٹر لطف الرحمان نے بھی ناراض کارکنوں سمیت کندھے سے کندھا ملا دیا۔
اسلام آباد( اڑان نیوز ) پاکستان تحریک انصاف کے سینئر رہنماء و وزیر اعلیٰ پنجاب کے معاون خصوصی سردار تنویر الیاس خان سے آزاد کشمیر کی مختلف سیاسی شخصیات کی ملاقاتوں کا سلسلہ جاری ہے، پی ٹی آئی آزادکشمیر کے بانی صدر ڈاکٹر لطف الرحمان نے بھی سردار تنویر الیاس خان سے ملاقات کرتے ہوئے اپنے ساتھیوں سمیت ان پر اپنے اعتماد کا اظہار کرتے ہوئے ملکر پارٹی مضبوط کرنے کا فیصلہ کیا ہے۔ سردار تنویر الیاس خان نے ڈاکٹر لطف الرحمان کی پارٹی کیلئے خدمات کو سراہتے ہوئے کہا کہ اب وہ وقت آ گیا ہے کہ پارٹی کے بنیادی و نظریاتی کارکنان اپنی جدوجہد مزید تیز کریں اور پارٹی کو الیکشن کیلئے نمبر ون پارٹی بنائیں۔ ڈاکٹر لطف الرحمان نے کہا کہ چیئرمین عمران خان نے آپ پر اعتماد کرتے ہوئے آزادکشمیر میں سیاسی کردار کیلئے منتخب کیا ہے ہم آپ کو خوش آمدید کہتے ہیں۔ سردار تنویر الیاس خان نے کہا کہ وزیر اعظم عمران خان نے پاکستان میں کرپٹ مافیا پر ہاتھ ڈالا ہے تو ان سب کی چیخیں نکل گئی ہیں، پاکستان میں ترقی اور تبدیلی کا سفر کامیابی سے جاری ہے۔ موجودہ پی ٹی آئی حکومت نے غریبوں کا احساس کرتے ہوئے سب کو بلا تخصیص ہیلتھ کارڈ جاری کرنے شروع کیے ہیں، ایسے اقدامات ہی فلاحی معاشروں کو پروان چڑھاتے ہیں۔ سردار تنویر الیاس خان نے کہا کہ آزادکشمیر میں عمران خان کی بنیادی و نظریاتی کارکنان اور رہنماء نے مشکل سیاسی حالات کا سامنا جرات کے ساتھ کیا ، ہم تمام پارٹی کارکنان کو عزت دیں گے اور ساتھ لیکر چلیں گے۔ انہوں نے کہا کہ موجودہ وقت کا تقاضا ہے کہ پارٹی کو جنگی بنیادوں پر مضبوط کیا جائے۔ انہوں نے کہا کہ پی ٹی آئی سمیت جو بھی لوگ آزادکشمیر کے لوگوں کی اور ریاست کی بہتری کیلئے کام کرنا چاہتے ہیں وہ پی ٹی آئی کی چھتری تلے آ جائیں، ہم سب ملکر آزادکشمیر کو بدلیں گے۔ انہوں نے مزید کہا کہ پارٹی رہنماؤں اور کارکنان کی اس وقت صرف ایک ہی تریح ہونی چاہیے کہ پارٹی میں صاف شفاف لوگ زیادہ سے زیادہ شامل ہو سکیں ۔
A great attention was given to TBLT in EFL classrooms in the recent years (Zheng, 2008) in China especially in mainland China. How TBLT was used and its applications were benefitted. There were many researches which were kept in mind in this regard. The level from primary to tertiary was kept in mind (e. g. Li, 2005; Qian, 2008; Wen, 2009; Wu, 2011; Xiao & Pan, 2009). But out of all those some were of great importance that had explored TBLT in school’s classrooms. These studies had been investigated by the teachers who were supposed to teach and they focus on their issues that constrained the implementation of TBLT in their classrooms. These studies highlighted the facts about teaching too. The implementation of TBLT was affected by the beliefs of the teachers. The context factors in China were different as compared to other areas of the world. Language proficiency level needs availability of resources in the rigid national examination system. Everything was fine except what was lacking in them was a more comprehensive picture how teachers had to across varying instructional levels to implement government-mandated and task-based language teaching.
Activity-based Learning / Teaching is considered a comprehensive approach to classroom teaching and learning. In this teaching style the students were kept busy in investigating of authentic problems that create hurdles in the way of learning environment. According to an article, there was an argument in it why projects had the potential to help people in their learning process. It was indicated in this article, that there are some of the factors in activity that affect motivation and thoughts, examine difficulties that students and teachers may encounter with activity based teaching and learning. It described how technology supported the students and teachers as they work on activities.
A study revealed in the domain of teaching and learning as a result of Whole School Improvement Programme. These include the teachers, the teachers plan their lessons with clear objectives and activities in their minds, and they reflected them on their executed lessons to find strengths, shortcomings and limitations. They gad some alternatives to overcome those limitations and shortcomings. They were applying activity- based methods in teaching and learning process. The environment that was created for them was a conducive learning environment. They involved their students in teaching and learning process with this method. They were also enriching the curriculum by using low-cost, no-cost and existing resources in their schools to develop students’ relational understanding and for student-centered teaching instead of teacher learning atmosphere. Head teachers of different schools were very supportive in using activity- based learning and teaching. That’s why through these practices teachers and students changed their behavior towards teaching and learning process and enforced participative approaches in their classroom teaching. There were some of the factors which supported the change from lecture to activity-based teaching and in both sample schools and also there were some the factors that were creating hindrance in both types of schools. Furthermore, some other factors that these changes were noticed not only in the practices of head teachers, teachers but also among the students in teaching and learning practices in favour of activity-based teaching in which they learn a lot with speed.
2.8 ACTIVITY-BASED TEACHING IN PAKISTAN
According to a study, it is the duty and responsibility of every school that it has to bring improvement is the most powerful tools to improve the quality of education in the field of education. The importance of school improvement was recognised all over the world today. The improvement was brought particularly in the developing countries because these countries are having and meeting many challenges in their education field and plan. The developing countries had many issues with human resources and also in their infrastructure.
The monitoring and evaluating system in these countries and the proper use of available and valuable resources are not satisfactory and up to the mark. This is main reason of low quality of education in developing countries. The Education Systems in these countries and under developing had experienced tremendous changes and expansion over the last three decades of education. In developing countries many such reforms had been implemented to increase the access and improvement of the quality of their education and that is Universal Primary Education, Early Childhood Education, Education for All, and Nai Roshni (literally meaning new horizon) in Pakistan, all these were the systems used in their educational institutes. But unfortunately the most of these reforms had been failed. These Transition from Lecture method to Activity-Based Method through whole School Improvement in Gilgit Baltistan. Pakistan had tried many reforms and were implemented in a fragmented way or without building the capacity to maintain and sustain them. Now they are improving their learning and teaching methodology.
One of the main reasons for the relative failure of the educational reforms, despite their good intentions and excellent content in many cases, was the implementation of single change programmes or lack of integration of many programs initiated in schools and so on. There were many plans and desires for bringing positive change in educational system, are often guided by powerful ideas and ambitions but only rarely is attention paid to the need to build capacity education system and learning. To implement these ideas and develop the skills and attitude of the implementers in the course of action is much needed. Resultantly, the quality of education had been suffered at all levels from primary, secondary to tertiary level.
Most of the educationists acknowledge that without the focus on capacity development or internal conditions of the school, there is a need of innovative work to marginalize these out dated methods and problems of new system of education. Many researches had shown that the internal capacity of schools become helpful in sustaining reform of the school. Having these ideas in view and mind Aga Khan University-Professional Development Centre North started a Whole School Improvement Program in different districts of the Northern Areas (Gilgit-Baltistan) specially, aiming to enhance the quality of teaching/learning process.
2.8.1 ACTIVITY-BASED LEARNING IN GILGIT BALTISTAN
The purpose and process of change should in the notice of every one. To achieve the desired goals and objectives of (WISP) whole school improvement program, different initiatives had been taken such as the teacher professional development was considered very vital tool to enhance Transition from lecture -based to activity-based learning and teaching through whole School Improvement in Gilgit Baltistan too.
Teachers should change lecture-based teaching and also their teaching and learning-based teaching for quality of teaching and learning and students learning outcomes. Learning strategies to activity-based teaching strategies and this change of teachers teaching practices enhanced students learning outcomes. Willis, (1996) says, activity-based teaching is a goal-oriented task where learners “solve a problem, do puzzles, play a games, or share and compare their experiences” (p. 53). Activity-based teaching is learning through experiences where learners actively improve and play their knowledge as they interact with their environment (Vygotsky, 1978). Similarly, Piaget (1977) says, “Knowledge is bound to action”. He explained that children act on objects and this action provides knowledge about those very objects. In this way the children know and construct the meaning or knowledge of the world very easily by the help of activity designed by their teachers.
Good method of education is that process in which students’ explore their potential and help them to learn themselves conceptually. It is only possible when teachers introduce activity-based teaching in the classrooms because activity-based teaching allows the students to think and share their knowledge and understanding with their peers and other classmates and even with their teachers very easily. During Whole School Improvement Program Professional Development teachers advocated activity-based teaching because initiating activities in the classroom is most important factor for students learning. But in the project schools at the beginning, the teachers were not used to have and use activity-based teaching. A Professional Development Teacher (PDT) said, “Teachers were only using traditional methods of teaching/learning and considering themselves as only source of knowledge but now they are doing different activities in the classrooms”.
A teacher, Nizamuddin, said that before Whole School Improvement Program, they had been teaching their classes in traditional methods in their classrooms. They had been only lecturing and considered students as empty vessels. Due to this reason they were using lecture-based teaching method and strategy to teach and train them before Whole School Improvement Supporting lesson planning. Another experienced teacher said, “Before WSIP we were planning our lessons which were long and in detail and our lesson plans were mostly lecture based and teacher centered. We were writing whole content of the topic from text books, but how to write brief, precise, activity based and child centered lesson plans, we learnt in WSIP”.
The same was also observed by PDT at the initial stage and said: “Some of teachers were planning very long lecture based teacher centered lesson plans. They were writing the whole text related to the topic from text books instead of devising activities to engage students in the classroom”. Writing long lesson plans was the tradition of the school where teachers were supposed to write every step in the plan which made the teachers exhausted and teachers were no more interested in planning. Commenting on the long plans Zuhra said, “Before WSIP we used to write long and abstract objectives because we did not know how to write objectives and what these objectives are for and how to set activities to achieve these objectives”.
According to the researcher Nizamuddin, a very experienced teacher, he observes and also supports the comments that teachers were not comfortable in writing lesson plans because of its long nature and it was time consuming for them to draw and made lesson plans. They were articulating whole text of lecture in their plan. According to him a good and train teacher plan his/ her lesson in his/her mind and then formulates his / her activities according to the need, caliber and level of the class and students.
A single activity cannot be used in every class. They were developing lessons for their personal benefits not for students learning. And this is not very helpful in the learning process. He said, “We had in our mind that we have to plan 350 lessons, and people from Field Office will come, count them and on the basis of the numbers they would appraise us”. Similarly, PDT B said, “Some of the experienced teachers were just articulating their objectives without devising activities and allocate a number to the lesson plan. Teachers were just trying and focusing to complete the given target of lesson plans in numbers.
According to Nizamuddin, classroom observation confirms that teachers design innovative activities looking at their objectives, and they also develop resources as a result of WSIP. Qamar, another very dedicated and experienced teacher said, “Before attending WSIP we were running school but we were not aware of how to engage students effectively in activities to enhance their learning. WSIP helped us to learn about the teaching methodology particularly activity based teaching”. The overall purpose of WSIP was sensitizing teachers towards effective teaching and learning. The focus was on how much student’s learn in the classroom, for effective teaching/learning lesson planning is critical and teachers need to develop lesson plans. In a focused group interview a student commented that Transition from Lecture -Based method of teaching/learning to Activity-Based method of teaching/learning through whole School Improvement in
It is said that in the State that there were interesting pedagogical experiments and projects that were carried out. But it is only possible when somebody within the establishment to take the initiative to look into an education system. According the work of another worker, who came upon children and worked as bonded labour and got them released then.
All the researched students had literally lost their childhood and they had been lost opportunity of their schooling. In this way those students’ learning time was wasted. Then with the help of some colleagues, Supriya Sahu and Murugannandam, had opened some special schools for those kinds of the students. To capture the attention of those children, the learning methods were introduced a child-friendly and joyful so that these types of students can take interest in their studies.
The new school was constructed with the regular school. The new teaching methods that were adopted used attracted almost all the students of both the schools. The teachers and students of the Panchayat schools wanted to know why they could not had more activities and make the classes interesting and enjoyable. On the other hand in old and traditional schools, there had old and traditional classes that were being used. In this new concept of teaching, 60 Head Masters were come together, for the training in the beginning. That was the beginning of the extension of joyful learning in all these sixty schools.
By using the new methods and techniques there were almost 7000 teachers were trained on the methodology by the new methods. A Teachers’ Guide was published that was called “Karpathu Karkandey”. With the assistance and help of UNICEF and then ‘Katralil Inimai,’ an anthology of songs, stories and different games, were brought out to take the interest of the students. Some groups of the teachers and some personnel of the BRCs and the DIETs went to Ekalavyain Madhya Pradesh and to Siddharth Village in Orissa. There were30 teachers and some supervisory staff with them went to Rishi Valley Rural Education Centre for a training of three-months programme. They wanted to learn the methods and many different ways for their students. The teachers were very quick to absorb the principles in systematizing the teaching processes and they use them in their schools to get maximum and desirable results from the students. They adopted and used the Telugu materials to Tamil. They did research over suitable folk and local cultures. They want to include it in the curriculum to make the curriculum very interesting.
From the trainees’ teachers, some of them, Activity-based Learning and Teaching, they continued from the nineties. Some young teachers of different classes like class One and Two had also understood the methods very well. They were made trainers and sent for the rural schools. All the schools in the Corporation of Chennai had been functioning efficiently on the ABT since 2003 and working properly. A team of independent researchers all were very experienced teacher and they had visited the schools in May 2007. They had a collective report and that was prepared by them.
An Activity-based learning and teaching is the method of education that was followed in the Corporation schools of Chennai from 2003, when M.P. Vijay Kumar became the Commissioner of the Chennai Corporation.
In mid-19’s The “Joyful Learning” experiments had started as an effort to provide special schools for the students who had been free from bonded labour. For this reason, the students worked hard by taking interest in it. There were some methods and materials were used to help the students catch up on the lost years of their childhood that seemed both appropriate and attractive to all the children. Added value to pedagogy came from the visits of teachers and trainers to innovative educational schemes in India, the faculty members from the DIETs and personnel of the BRCs. Teachers were sent to the Rishi Valley Rural Education Centers study the methods and materials developed for their rural schools.
According to Tamil Nadu, there came a turning point, his team had visited Rishi Valley school system. Here now first time was given a lot of emphasize to the curriculum of Mathematics and Environmental Science. The whole syllabus had been broken up into small units. The reason behind was that it could be mastered one at a time. The whole material of the syllabus was put into small incremental units, to be completed serially and steadily. Now this type of organizing the syllabus into ladder was valuable for the learners and the students. The structure to the curriculum had allowed every student to proceed at a self-selected pace of their own. This structuring ladder was very valuable for the learners.
The subjects covered were five plus one in the ABT kit in Tamil Nadu. Tamil language was the first area to be polished. In learning of Tamil language, the lesson began with the illustration of cards, small words and even short words because these were very easy in writing, speaking and understanding. It was rather in the alphabet sequence. A similar method was used in other subjects teaching. Other subjects were English and Mathematics. These subjects were learnt and taught through using the attractive and interesting Montessori materials. This material was designed very systematically with the fundamental principles of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The importance of cards remains as it is even in the learning of Science and Social Science. There were many activities that were written and attached before every chapter so that it increase the interest of the learners. Another area was story-telling, paper crafting, even reading of story books, sketching, drawing, collage work and many kinds of group activities and games that were played outdoors had become the part of it.
As we all know that the area and scope of improvement remains everywhere. There were also some improvements and omission on the Rishi Valley materials in the ABT. English as a subject and as a language had been included to the new curriculum in the ABT. But a pleasant surprise was noted that the students were learning both Tamil and English language at the same time with equal proficiency. Students were not feeling any hesitation or difficulty in learning both Tamil and English. After this experiment and research another difference was made. The difference was of the inclusion of both Science and Social Science, while the REC had included only Environmental Science, this was also a basic difference between these two courses of studies. The third innovation was the introduction of these things at the Primary curriculum and level, these were of three dimensional materials in Mathematics. The Montessori system of teaching and learning had proved to be a tremendously good to ABT. Now learning had become very easy and interesting. The material that was included in in ABT was very colourful, hardy, easy to understand and handle, interestingly developed and enabled the students to understand place value (units, tens, hundreds) and the basic mathematical concepts.
There was the time when black board was introduced for the teachers and their ease. The use of blackboard increased the efficiency of the teacher and understanding of the students. Then it was found that the dimensions of the black board are shorter and lesser then they increased the blackboard space. After the black successfully use of board two more learning aids had been created: a specific space for each student to write and a large space provided to read each others’ exercises easily. Every student can proudly play and own his / her part of that blackboard and can use it where and when required.
The teaching materials were colour-coded for each class and the teacher systematically stacked on the shelves too. After all above-mentioned and said, they did another thing to introduce logos of many different animals and even insects for different aspects of the curriculum to identify class-wise. It was again categorized class-wise when the students complete their one set, they had a card for them for their “self- evaluation” so that the teacher could judge himself /herself very well. And even it was easy for the administration of the school to check, evaluate the work and progress of every student. Another opportunity was provided to every student in his/her books to recall the learnt material at each stage of their learning. In this way the evaluation had become a necessary part of the process for every student. As there was no pass and fail for the students that is students worked without the fear of failure and their hidden qualities came in front of the teachers and the students. It was noticed that the drop out was greater in number from the schools because of the fear of failure in the ordinary school systems. The need of annual examination system was over in this new system of education. So there was no examination at the end of every school year or school calendar. They were called “Annual Exam”. If we think that how children were generally given ranks for their performance in school subjects and how ranking becomes a subtle way of indicating the “value” of a child, we had a sense of liberation from ranking here to them. It was considered that No child is “better than” or “worse than” another. The teacher had to keep an eye on the levels of the students attained by every child and sometimes helped by pairing an advanced learner with a slower one and strugglers, for specific exercises
The history of the Activity-based learning starts in 1944. This is the time after the end of the World War I. There was the English person whose name was David Horsburgh. The history is very much interesting. The said person happened to come to India as part of the Royal Air Force. He was posted in in Bengal during these days. The area now is called Bangla Dish. As he was an ardent lover of nature and its beauty, he fell in love with the complexity of the culture of the area, love in of people, the openness of the people of Bangal and the most of all the beauty of the countryside of that area. After the World War II, he went back and started studying different courses in Indian history and culture and studied Sanskrit and Hindi, the two native languages of the area.
After having different courses, David Horsburgh came back to India as a teacher to teach and work in Rishi Valley School and Blue Mountain School. After some of the year’s working, he joined the British Council and worked in Madras that was situated and founded in Bangalore for twenty years of his stay here. He took retirement from here. Then he got a 7- acre site in Kolar District where he opened his own school in Neel Bagh. He was an ambitious gentleman. He had his school to fulfill his dreams. He constituted and had created new methods in teaching and a vast quantum of well-planned learning materials.
As it had been discussed that David developed a diverse curriculum for his school students, the curriculum had school subjects like English, mathematics, Sanskrit, and Telugu. With this gardening, carpentry, sewing, masonry and music were taught them in his school. He had different grouping in his classrooms. The students worked on the material on cards at their level. These educational materials were planned very systematically according to the level of the students. Sketches, drawings and an occasional touch of humour was also the part of the syllabus and curriculum. Fresh materials would be added on cards frequently. This material on cards look very good and was eye catching. It was emphasized that the sources for lessons were not finite so that the students should learn a lot from them. David established a very good library in the school, the good thing about the library was that it had been accessible for all the teachers and all the students. As an example the school had music classes with the study.
As it is discussed above that music classes were arranged for the students. The students of the school were taught to sing in their classes melodiously, in chorus and also in harmony. In the same way the students were taught folk and classical songs from different cultures and even in different languages. It always looked good and pleasant t to the ear. The music lesson was kept the first one daily. Drama was also an important feature of his school curriculum. From the students he had choose talent in acting, theatre, direction and production. He also produced different scenes from Shakespearean play. These plays were to be staged and these were also interesting. In this way action, theatre, play, singing and production was taught to the students. These plays were first put on the school board with the headlights from. Later, almost all these plays were taken to Bangalore and other cities to display. Even these plays were liked by the audience. All the actors were very talented and experienced during their school days.
David Horsburgh not only planned and managed a laborious and exclusive course for his students but he also planned different courses for the teachers too. The trainees’ course also had a great deal of theoretical material as a part of their syllabus. He provided them setting for teaching practice to make them trained for their field. Many teachers from the school had set up small schools in different parts of the country after having a course from there.
In almost every part of India teachers came got their course or we may say after having a teaching course from this school, opened many private schools. For example in Bangalore, Amukta Mahapatra was an independent consultant in Chennai, Rohit Dhankar of Jaipur, Usha and Narasimhan, who set up Sumavanamon the Neel Bagh model and Indrani, who worked in Madanapalle, are some of the very well-known persons and names are currently working in innovative small schools which was a good and positive change. In the training of the teachers, there were many hours of craft work was the essential and compulsory part of the syllabus and curriculum. Most of the learning material was used in their own schools are designed and made by the teachers to train the students.
In 1984, a sad incident was happened David Horsburgh was died. After his death, the soul force and driving force of Neel Bagh declined very fast. His could do the hard work which was his main feature. The modernity of the curriculum was no more found there. It was difficult to maintain the school as the way he was carried on. Rishi Valley School acquired Neel Bagh, and got some support from the HRD (Human Resource Development) ministry at Delhi. In this way the school was not be closed. Anil Bordia, Secretary in the Ministry of Human Resource Development, sanctioned a project linking Neel Bagh, Sumavanam with (a school run by Usha and Narasimhan) and Rishi Valley. They tried their best to run the school but the soul and ambition of David was not in them. That is why their results were not up to the mark and expectation.
Radhika Herzberger continued to have the dream of offering relevant education to children in villages adjoining Rishi Valley, while also preserving the strengths of their specific culture and conserving the natural environment in her institute. She set up the Rural Education centre, consulting Rajeev Sethi about sustaining folk culture. In the early phase, she had the help of Usha and Narasimhan in developing Telugu and Science curricula. The teachers and students of Rishi Valley helped to create materials, For materials in Mathematics and in other subjects, teachers of Rishi Valley contributed significantly. But the early initiatives were fragmentary. At this time, Padmanabha Rao and his wife Rama Rao came to Rishi Valley to join. They had strong roots in folk theatre and poetry in Telugu and want their contribution.
Padmanabha Rao and his wife Rama Rao were very talent and enthusiasm. They were very able to take this movement very forward. Both husband and wife consulted with different people and learnt from artists, writers, teachers and theatre people. That is why they got good and valuable suggestions from them from their work.
Another researcher, Raos, came forward. He worked out the concept of the learning ladder. His organization of the learning process into small steps has become a very efficient and expert as an enabling tool for this learning. The organizations’ rule-governed flexibility that makes for the confident and involved their teachers and students in this project but it makes the project, a student less but more teacher-dependent. Even both were independent. The ladder from him serves as a monitoring tool for school administrators and was very important. The children learnt to water the trees and develop a green island around each school to spread out greenery all around the schools where it was practiced.