There was a research that was conducted in 1985 in this field showed that traditional styles of teaching are doing little to improve the conceptual learning in Physics and even in other science subjects
There was a research that was conducted in 1985 in this field showed that traditional styles of teaching are doing little to improve the conceptual learning in Physics and even in other science subjects

سردار تنویر الیاس کے ساتھ سیاسی شخصیات کی ملاقاتیں جاری، بانی صدر پی ٹی آئی ڈاکٹر لطف الرحمان نے بھی ناراض کارکنوں سمیت کندھے سے کندھا ملا دیا۔
اسلام آباد(اڑان نیوز ) پاکستان تحریک انصاف کے سینئر رہنماء و وزیر اعلیٰ پنجاب کے معاون خصوصی سردار تنویر الیاس خان سے آزاد کشمیر کی مختلف سیاسی شخصیات کی ملاقاتوں کا سلسلہ جاری ہے، پی ٹی آئی آزادکشمیر کے بانی صدر ڈاکٹر لطف الرحمان نے بھی سردار تنویر الیاس خان سے ملاقات کرتے ہوئے اپنے ساتھیوں سمیت ان پر اپنے اعتماد کا اظہار کرتے ہوئے ملکر پارٹی مضبوط کرنے کا فیصلہ کیا ہے۔ سردار تنویر الیاس خان نے ڈاکٹر لطف الرحمان کی پارٹی کیلئے خدمات کو سراہتے ہوئے کہا کہ اب وہ وقت آ گیا ہے کہ پارٹی کے بنیادی و نظریاتی کارکنان اپنی جدوجہد مزید تیز کریں اور پارٹی کو الیکشن کیلئے نمبر ون پارٹی بنائیں۔ ڈاکٹر لطف الرحمان نے کہا کہ چیئرمین عمران خان نے آپ پر اعتماد کرتے ہوئے آزادکشمیر میں سیاسی کردار کیلئے منتخب کیا ہے ہم آپ کو خوش آمدید کہتے ہیں۔ سردار تنویر الیاس خان نے کہا کہ وزیر اعظم عمران خان نے پاکستان میں کرپٹ مافیا پر ہاتھ ڈالا ہے تو ان سب کی چیخیں نکل گئی ہیں، پاکستان میں ترقی اور تبدیلی کا سفر کامیابی سے جاری ہے۔ موجودہ پی ٹی آئی حکومت نے غریبوں کا احساس کرتے ہوئے سب کو بلا تخصیص ہیلتھ کارڈ جاری کرنے شروع کیے ہیں، ایسے اقدامات ہی فلاحی معاشروں کو پروان چڑھاتے ہیں۔ سردار تنویر الیاس خان نے کہا کہ آزادکشمیر میں عمران خان کی بنیادی و نظریاتی کارکنان اور رہنماء نے مشکل سیاسی حالات کا سامنا جرات کے ساتھ کیا ، ہم تمام پارٹی کارکنان کو عزت دیں گے اور ساتھ لیکر چلیں گے۔ انہوں نے کہا کہ موجودہ وقت کا تقاضا ہے کہ پارٹی کو جنگی بنیادوں پر مضبوط کیا جائے۔ انہوں نے کہا کہ پی ٹی آئی سمیت جو بھی لوگ آزادکشمیر کے لوگوں کی اور ریاست کی بہتری کیلئے کام کرنا چاہتے ہیں وہ پی ٹی آئی کی چھتری تلے آ جائیں، ہم سب ملکر آزادکشمیر کو بدلیں گے۔ انہوں نے مزید کہا کہ پارٹی رہنماؤں اور کارکنان کی اس وقت صرف ایک ہی تریح ہونی چاہیے کہ پارٹی میں صاف شفاف لوگ زیادہ سے زیادہ شامل ہو سکیں ۔

The use of Activity-based methods and activities in science subjects, Physics, Chemistry and Biology and Social Science, is more advanced. In Physics courses, in Pakistan, had been able to use the force concept inventory since 1992 as an effective assessment tool that measures changes in conceptual understanding within an active learning environment (Savinainen, Scott, 2002).

There was a research that was conducted in 1985 in this field showed that traditional styles of teaching are doing little to improve the conceptual learning in Physics and even in other science subjects.      (Halloun, Hestenes, 1985).

In 1998, there were some students who got admission in Physics courses in  high schools and colleges to compare activity-based teaching and learning methods and traditional methods in order to check the difference and effects on student understanding. Activity-based method can also be called as Interactive Engagement (IEM) Method can be defined as “designed at least in part to promote conceptual understanding through interactive engagement of students in heads-on (always) and hands-on (usually) activities which yield immediate feedback through discussion with peers and/or instructors.” And “make little or no use of Interactive Engagement methods, relying primarily on passive-student lectures and is very dull and boring as compared to new method of teaching learning in the environment. ”          (Hake, 1998).

Figure 2.1

It was noticed that the results that were obtained by using the new methods were greater as compared to the traditional methods. According to the researcher analysis “the conceptual test results strongly suggest that the use of IE strategies can increase mechanics-course 9 effectiveness well beyond that obtained with traditional methods” (Hake, 1998).   Activity-based teaching and learning activities are shown a noticeable difference in the courses student learning in Physics and other language courses.

2.10 The advantages & disadvantages of Activity based learning

As the name suggest Activity based learning is gaining knowledge by doing activities. In this methodology students rather than attending the classes given by teachers, they use their creative dynamism to guide them through the activity based material. There is strong lobby supporting either learning channel. People who support traditional ways of learning strongly feels that it worked for them, for their parents, similarly it will work well for their child as well. Another section of society feels otherwise and strongly advocates for activity based learning. Let’s see what are the general advantages and disadvantages we have come across:

  • Each child has its own speed to grasp things, activity based learning allows kid to learn fundamentals at their own speed.
  • Horizon of learning is pretty wise, it facilitates learning in groups, and mutual learning. Also it has a place for self-learning.
  • It allows teacher’s to devote time to individual student needs.
  • Since its activity based and kid is involved in the process – their participation allows them to pick fundamentals fast.
  • There is no concept of unit test etc, Evaluation is inbuilt in the system which makes it quite child friendly.
  • On completing the activity, child has a feeling of sense of accomplishment which boosts child’s confidence.
  • Games are needless to say create more buzz among children.
  • Creative and communicative skills are bound to groom in this way of learning.
  • There is feeling of interaction between teacher and the child, it helps in reducing the barrier between the two.

Now let’s look at some disadvantages which is not allowing activity based learning mushroom it to the huge extent.

  • It’s important to learn facts right. If fundamentals and facts are not known, it doesn’t help in arguments and debates.
  • Same goes for learning any foreign language.

There are not many disadvantages however shortcomings are big enough which makes traditional learning and activity based learning system as complementary mechanism, rather than substituting them completely. If judiciously both the techniques are blended and child is taught it can do wonders.

In a blog relating Teaching Strategy posted on Friday, June 08, 2012 at 

Activity method is a technique adopted by a teacher to emphasize his or her method of teaching through activity in which the students participate rigorously and bring about efficient learning experiences. It is a child-centered   approach. It is a method in which the child is actively involved in participating mentally and physically. Learning by doing is the main focus in this method. Learning by doing is imperative in successful learning since it is well proved that more the senses are stimulated, more a person learns and longer the teacher retains.

Pine G (1989) mentions that in an activity based teaching,  learners willingly with enthusiasm internalize and implement concepts relevant to their needs. So our understanding on the activity method by now should mean any learning that is carried out with a purpose in a social environment, involving physical and mental action, stimulating for creative action or expression.

2.11 The need to use activity based learning method

The information processing theory in psychology views learners as active investigators of their environment. This theory is grounded in the premise that people innately strive to make sense of the world around them.

In the process of learning, they experience, memorize and understand. Students need to be provided with data and materials necessary to focus their thinking and interaction in the lesson for the process of analyzing the information. Teachers need to be actively involved in directing and guiding the students’ analysis of the information.

            It requires active problem solving by students in finding patterns in the information through their own investigation and analysis. With continued practice in these processes, students learn not the content of the lesson but also develop many other skills.

·         It enhances creative aspect of experience.

·         It gives reality for learning.

·         Uses all available resources.

·         Provides varied experiences to the students to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge, experience, skills and values.

·         Builds the student’s self-confidence and develops understanding through work in his/her group.

·         Gets experiences, develop interest, enriches vocabulary and provides stimulus for reading.

·         Develops happy relationship between students and students, teachers and students.

·         An activity is said to be the language of the child. A child who lacks in verbal expression can make up through use of ideas in the activity.

·         Subjects of all kind can be taught through activity.

·         Social relation provides opportunity to mix with others.

2.11.1 Kinds of activities:

The activities used in this strategy can be generalized under three main categories:

·         Exploratory     –           gathering knowledge, concept and skill.

·         Constructive    –           getting experience through creative works.

·         Expressional    –          presentations.

2.11.2 Steps required for Effective Organization of Activities.

a.       Planning.

b.      Involving children in the learning process.

c.       Each child is made an active learner.

d.      For each activity ensure you follow the principles of:-

  • What?
  • How? Work directions step by step, including:
  • With whom? Where? How long?
  • What after?

e.       Ensure you give clear instructions before each activity. It must focus on the above a, b, c, d.

2.12 Role of a Teacher in an Activity Based Method

  • A planner, an organizer and evaluator.
  • Facilitator.
  • Decision maker.
  • Knowledge imparter
  • Disciplinarian

The work of a good teacher is at different levels as under:

  • Planning level
  • Instructional level
  • Professional level